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  • insecure with the concept of a terminal
  • has yet to learn the basics of vi
  • has not figured out how to get a directory
  • still has trouble with typing <RETURN> after each line of input


  • knows that `ls’ will produce a directory
  • uses the editor, but calls it `vye’
  • has heard of `C’ but never used it
  • has had his first bad experience with rm
  • is wondering how to read his mail
  • is wondering why the person next to him seems to like Unix so very much.


  • uses vi and nroff, but inexpertly
  • has heard of regular-expr.s but never seen one.
  • has figured out that `-‘ precedes options
  • has attempted to write a C program and has decided to stick with pascal
  • is wondering how to move a directory
  • thinks that dbx is a brand of stereo component
  • knows how to read his mail and is wondering how to read the news

knowlegable user

  • uses nroff with no trouble, and is beginning to learn tbl and eqn
  • uses grep to search for fixed strings
  • has figured out that mv(1) will move directories
  • has learned that “learn” doesn’t help
  • somebody has shown him how to write C programs
  • once used sed to do some text substitution
  • has seen dbx used but does not use it himself
  • thinks that make is a only for wimps


  • uses sed when necessary
  • uses macro’s in vi, uses ex when neccesary
  • posts news at every possible opportunity
  • write csh scripts occasionally
  • write C programs using vi and compiles with cc
  • has figured out what `&&’ and ‘||’ are for
  • thinks that human history started with ‘!h’


  • uses sed and awk with comfort
  • uses undocumented features of vi
  • write C code with `cat >’ and compiles with ‘!cc’
  • uses adb because he doesn’t trust source debuggers
  • can answer questions about the user environment
  • writes his own nroff macros to supplement std. ones
  • write scripts for Bourne shell (/bin/sh)
  • knows how to install bug fixes


  • uses m4 and lex with comfort
  • writes assembly code with `cat >’
  • uses adb on the kernel while system is loaded
  • customizes utilities by patching the source
  • reads device driver source with his breakfast
  • can answer any unix question after a little thought
  • uses make for anything that requires two or more distinct commands to achieve
  • has learned how to breach security but no longer needs to try


  • writes device drivers with `cat >’
  • fixes bugs by patching the binaries
  • can answer any question before you ask
  • writes his own troff macro packages
  • is on first-name basis with Dennis, Bill, and Ken

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